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What is HPV?

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common skin infection that is spread by skin-to-skin contact; this means you don’t even need to have full sex to spread the infection. Certain types of HPV cause visble genital warts. Most often, the HPV infection causes no warts and people don’t know they have it.

What are the symptoms of HPV?

HPV causes small fleshy bumps (warts) or skin changes on the genital or anal area. Many HPV infections are invisible and will show no symptoms

How serious is HPV?

Genital warts is not a serious infection, is easily treated, and usually disappears on its own. However, genital HPV that you can't see can cause changes to skin cells that, if not found and treated, can lead to cancer.

Genital HPV can be prevented by vaccination, and it works best  if you get vaccinated before you have sex with anyone.  It is currently free to girls and women aged between 12 and 20 years. Ask your nurse or doctor about it.

How do I get tested for HPV?

There are no simple tests for HPV. Genital warts are diagnosed if they cause visible lumps or bumps that can be seen.

Invisible HPV is found in women through having a cervical smear. There are no HPV tests that can be done to test for HPV in men. Find out more at the New Zealand HPV Project or Find a local clinic now.

What is the treatment for HPV?

Most genital warts will clear on their own, but if you have genital warts you may want to get them treated. Find your local clinic.

Treatment for invisible HPV is only necessary if there are certain abnormal skin cell changes of the cervix,[this is the entry to the place where the baby grows] which are  found by having a cervical smear.

HPV can be prevented by having the HPV vaccination, which is free for women aged between 12 and 20 years.

READ MORE about HPV...

What is HPV?

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the name of a group of viruses that includes more than 150 different types that cause infection on the skin surface. Certain types of HPV cause warts on the hands or feet, while others can cause visible genital warts. However, sometimes HPV infection causes no warts, and many people with genital HPV do not know they have it.

HPV and genital warts are usually spread by direct, skin-to-skin contact during vaginal or anal sex. It is also possible, but rare, to transmit them to the mouth by oral sex.

Warts on other parts of the body, such as the hands, are caused by different types of HPV. Contact with these warts does not seem to cause genital warts.

Warts may appear within several weeks after sexual contact with an infected person, they may take months to appear, or they may never appear. This makes it hard to know exactly when or from whom you got HPV

What are the symptoms of HPV?

Genital warts are growths or bumps that appear on the vulva, in or around the vagina or anus, on the cervix, and on the penis, scrotum, groin or thigh. They may be raised or flat, single or multiple, small or large. Some cluster together, forming a cauliflower-like shape.

Sometimes HPV causes changes in to the cells just under the surface of the skin that can’t be seen, in other words are there but are invisible. Doctors or nurses  can find these ‘microscopic HPV changes’ only with the help of special instruments.

Sometimes people do not notice warts because they are inside the vagina, or on the cervix, or in the anus. In addition, they are often flesh coloured and painless. In rare cases they cause symptoms such as itching, pain or bleeding.

For women, an abnormal cervical smear may be the first warning sign that HPV is present, though a cervical smear is not a test for HPV.

How serious is HPV?

If you have not had the HPV vaccination most of us [75%]are likely to have an HPV infection at some stage in our lives. If you have had the HPV vaccination this will protect you from getting HPV.

HPV that causes warts is not a serious infection, is easily treated, and usually disappears on its own. However, genital HPV that can't be seen  can cause skin  cell changes that, if not found and treated, can lead to cancer.

Genital HPV can be prevented by vaccination, which is most effective if given before you become sexually active. It is currently free for girls and women aged between 12 and 20 years. Ask your nurse or  doctor about it.

How do I get tested for HPV?

You can check yourself and your partner(s) for warts, but remember: warts sometimes can be very difficult to see. Also, sometimes it’s hard to tell the difference between a wart and other bumps and pimples.

If you think you have warts or have been exposed to HPV, go to a nurse or doctor at your local clinic who can check more closely and may use a magnifying lens to find small warts.

Find a local clinic now.

What is the treatment for HPV?

Treatment is optional. Most genital warts  will clear up on their own  sooner or later. However you may want to have them treated as they can be unsightly and/or uncomfortable. There are several available treatments, and no one treatment is ideal for all people or all warts.

•            Podophyllotoxin (Condyline™) solution is a patient-applied treatment for external genital warts, recommended for men only as it is too difficult for women to self-apply. For men, it is easy to use and safe if instructions are followed.

•            Imiquimod (Aldara™) cream is a patient-applied treatment for external genital and perianal warts. It is easy to use and safe if instructions are followed. Not recommended in pregnancy.

•            Cryotherapy (freezing off the wart with liquid nitrogen) can be performed by a trained health practitioner.

•            Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is a chemical applied to the surface of the wart by a trained health practitioner. TCA is unavailable in some areas.

•            Laser therapy (using an intense light to destroy the warts) or surgery (cutting off the warts) has the advantage of getting rid of the warts in a single visit. Laser treatment can be expensive and the healthcare provider must be well trained in these methods. It is only available in a few centres. Recurrences may occur.

Factors that might influence selection of treatment include size, location and number of warts, changes in the warts, your preference, cost of treatment, convenience, adverse effects, and the healthcare provider’s expertise.

It is advisable to seek medical advice before starting treatment for genital warts. Ask your doctor for an explanation of the treatment, including the costs and likely benefits. Be sure to understand the follow-up instructions, such as what to do about discomfort and when to seek help.

Be patient—treatment often takes several visits and a variety of approaches. None of the available treatments is a cure for HPV. The virus can remain in the skin after treatment. Because the virus can lie dormant in the cells, in some cases warts can return months or even years after treatment. In other cases warts never recur.

If you are pregnant or think you might be, tell your doctor so he or she can choose a treatment that won’t be harmful to you or your baby.

Don’t use over-the-counter treatments which are not specifically for genital warts. These are not meant for sensitive genital skin.

It is recommended to avoid sexual contact with the infected area during treatment, to protect the treated area of skin from friction and to help it heal.

Other important information about HPV

If you are diagnosed with warts and you have a partner it is a good idea to discuss this. They can see a nurse or doctor to have a check up too.  Reading our  page on How do I tell a partner? may  help you with this discussion.

The types of HPV linked to cervical cancer usually are not the types linked with genital warts. However, a woman with genital warts, like any other sexually active woman, should have regular smears as advised by her nurse or doctor.  HPV vaccination and regular cervical smears prevent cervical cancer. Cervical smears find changes in skin cells on the surface of the cervix. Cancer can almost always be prevented through finding and treating them.

Vaccines are available that prevent some of the most common genital HPV types, including genital warts. Vaccination before becoming sexually active is best and is currently available free to girls and women aged between 12 and 20 years. Ask your nurse or doctor about the HPV vaccine.

For more information about the vaccine visit the Ministry of Health HPV immunisation page

For more information about HPV phone the New Zealand HPV Project Helpline, Freephone 0508 11 12 13 or visit the HPV Project website

For information on the National Cervical Screening Programme, Freephone 0800 729 729 or visit the National Screening Unit page

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Please follow this link to the New Zealand HPV website